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Sport Schedule Requirements
Sport Schedule Constraints
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Sport Schedule Requirements  
Glossary > Sport Schedule Requirements
CONSTELLATION - TERMINOLOGY and NAMING CONVENTIONS by John Jan Popovic


Glossary > Sport Schedule Requirements
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The main purpose of this paper is to clarify things, to eliminate ambiguities and misunderstandings in the natural language. The specification document must be complete, accurate and easily readable. This glossary explains some of the main terms, which occur more frequently at work preparing their calendars, including terms used in the system CONSTELLATION.

Many concepts were too vague and not well structured and ill-defined. We applied a rigid formalism during the lexical definition of glossary, having a conception of mathematics as a tool of interpretation of reality.
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A clear separation of concerns emerges: we might call them the mathematical concerns about correctness and the engineering concerns about efficiency.
... the discovery how to separate them rigorously in our thinking is relatively young, and even when aware of this possibility, we often fall back into our old bad habits.
The purpose of abstraction is not to be vague, but to create a new semantic level in which one can be absolutely precise.
Correctness Concerns and, Among Other Things, Why They are Resented.
E. W. Dijkstra

On a regular basis sport event coordinators and organizers have a very hard time to not talk in terms of implementation details about a solution. They mostly lack shared concepts, methodology, and terminology.

We address the problem of scheduling the matches of a round robin competition for a sport league.
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Abstract:
Introduction Sports scheduling is an area of increasing interest in constraint programming. As amateur and professional sports leagues proliferate and grow in size and complexity, organizers are increasingly turning to specialised software assisted scheduling [Nemhauser and Trick]. The scientific literature in this area is also growing and one can begin to get a sense of the range and mathematical difficulty of the scheduling problems.
Good schedules have many benefits for the league, such as higher incomes, lower costs and more interesting and fairer seasons. Many solution approaches for sports scheduling problems have been introduced in recent years.

These can include classical challenges such as set covering problems and quadratic assignment problems. In this note we concentrate on a version of a core problem that invariably comes up: determining whether a set of constraints on the schedule is feasible. This is often called the "timetabling" problem of the scheduling process.

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REQUIREMENTS
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Before you can run the CONSTELLATION Assigning Division Pools and Schedule Processing you will have to setup team requirements and desired constraints for fixed game assignments performing the following 10 operations.

Sometimes the sequence is not exactly as specified below, and sometimes the league mangers must return to previous steps and refine and repeat some operations and edit the requirement data, until the requirements are complete and satisfactory.
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User's work-flow of all scheduling requirement data in Constellation
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In the CONSTELLATION COMPETITION CARDS :
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1. The user (League manager) must configure all competitions of the season (competitionName and hierarchy)

2. there should be also specified preferred event calendars for league/division competitions fixtures (starting date of the competition and optionally number of teams per division) Set the dates and times when fixtures should take place, plus configure exception dates when fixtures should not take place e.g. December 25th or January 1st.

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In the CONSTELLATION CENSUS :
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3. you need to check if all Clubs are registered.
4. for each Club you need to setup the venues/fields where teams play.
5. for each Club you need to specify all the club's teams enrolled/subscribed in competitions of the season
6. in the Constellation Graph, for each Club specify all the compatible venues/stadia for the club's teams
7. in the Constellation Graph, for each Club specify all complementarity(Y) and simultaneity(X) team-pairings among the club's team
8. in the Constellation Graph, for each club's teams specify the match time
9. perform the CONSTELATION GLOBAL CONTROL and check the correctness and completeness of requirement data and possible venue timetable conflicts, before you start with the assignment process

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In the CONSTELLATION VENUES :
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10. correct the timetable conflicts
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Some fixtures can be set manually in Excell and uploaded via CONSTELATION FIXTURE UPLOADER, or better in automatic fashion the CONSTELLATION fixture scheduler allows you to assign fixtures, considering constraints for one or several divisions in just few minutes.

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Sport Event Scheduling - Requirements of Balanced Round Robin Algorithm
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A league/division comprises of even number of n teams, and in (n-1) consecutive rounds. Each team must play with each other. Matches take place at the home stadium of one of the two teams, and home and away games should be alternated as much as possible. We call break, [after de Werra (1980)], the fact that a team plays two consecutive rounds in the same location, where the term location or venue denotes either home or away. The problem is to nd a schedule scheme that minimizes the number of breaks and satisfies a number of other side constraints.

* We shall consider here the problem of constructing a season schedule for a sports league consisting of even number of n teams.
* All these teams have to play against each other at least once.
* Here we consider the timetabling problem for a "round robin" schedule: the case in which every team must play every other team exactly once.
* In addition there are nStadiums (not related to the various teams) in which the games have to be played.
* One desires that each team plays the same number of games in each stadium.
* Furthermore, all teams have to be involved in a game in each day where games are scheduled.
* Finally two teams should not play against each other twice in the same stadium.

We have an overview of the sports scheduling problem, and a set of best solutions obtained for real-world instances.

In addition there are nStadiums (not related to the various teams) in which the games have to be played. One desires that each team plays the same number of games in each stadium. Furthermore, all teams have to be involved in a game in each day where games are scheduled. Finally two teams should not play against each other twice in the same stadium.

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Before you can run the CONSTELLATION Assigning Division Pools and Schedule Processing you will have to setup all requirements and define constraints for fixed game assignments.
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FIXTURE ASSIGNMENTS
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After the CONSTELLATION CENSUS and other requirements are complete and without inner conflict we will have complete requirements.

A. SEASON COMPETITIONS
B. VENUES STADIA FIELDS
C. CLUB TEAMS CONSTRAINTS
If above information is correct and complete then fixed game assignments may be successfully generated.
D. FIXTURES and COMPETITION CALENDARS

FEATURES:
* Constellation includes all instruments for creation of high quality sport-event schedulers.
* Constellation is supporting a diversity of arrangement algorithms, like Balanced ROUND ROBIN scheduling.
* Constellation scheduling considers user predefined playground, time and team compatibility-binding constraints, which are user predefined in Constellation Graph in Constellation Census module
* Constellation Graph enables quick and simple management of team-binding, time and stadium-location constraints settings.
* Constellation schedules tend to obey particular constraint logic definitions, which are defined via Constellation Graphs
* All matches for each week are automatically generated, and constraints are respected to each schedule week, in order to provide a harmonious distribution of teams and playground locations during the sport season
* Inter-divisional conflict resolution: conflicts are automatically resolved across all divisions/groupings during the interactive schedule creation.
Constellation has incorporated support for balanced round robin schedules, Swiss round, single and double elimination tournaments, mixed (inter) divisional schedules.
Scheduler match days in successive rounds do not necessary have to be in a fixed week day; i.e. matches in different rounds can take place in a user modifiable week day.
* Competition schedule calendar report of each competition is rendered as a web page.
Report includes list of games per team in each round, list of home and away games, home/away sequence for each team, a confrontation diagram describing the game list each team plays versus it's rivals.
Schedule reports allows filtered viewing of games for defined competition, team or date, with information sorted in the proper chronological order.

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Division, sometimes called League or Group
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Many times the number of teams registered in a sport competition can be so great that it becomes impractical that teams entered play in one league/division all together. So the matches are held in smaller groupings: league/division.

All teams in a competition (Sporting Activity, Category, League or Division, Committee of competence) which participate in a championship/tournament, are divided into smaller groups of 6, 8,.., 18, ​​up to 20 teams playing versus each other.
When the teams in a competition are divided into groups/divisions, trying to respect the criterion of geographic proximity, or you try to assign the same division/pool neighbouring teams in geographical proximity.

For an example, if in competition there are 151 teams enrolled, the competition league championship can be split into 10 league/divisions with with 16 teams in each division.
So, in 9 league/divisions there is one BYE/dummy team * (1 division with 16 teams and 9 divisions with [15 + 1 bye] teams).




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